Intimidating site reference com
Biologists have long been fascinated by these eyespots and multiples lines of investigation have addressed the question of how and why eyespots have evolved in different groups of organisms. Although occasional studies were carried out since the early 1900s, the last few years have culminated in a range of novel studies, which have significantly furthered our understanding of the evolution of these intriguing structures, and eyespots have become a very exciting model system in evolutionary and developmental biology .
Lepidopteran insects have been especially popular for investigations into eyespot evolution.
Experimental studies have directly demonstrated the wide range of selective forces that are likely to have shaped the myriad eyespots currently found in nature. However, the most widespread selective agent shaping the evolution of eyespot is, arguably, predation pressure.
Two broad hypotheses explain how eyespots may be effective against predation.
They appear in 416 and 418 AD in the Theodosian legal code, as a bunch of men responsible for the care of the sick, but who are plainly engaged in thuggery and intimidation.
The other reference is in the Acts of the Council of Chalcedon in 451, when they are mentioned as intimidating the bishops at the robber-council of Ephesus in 449, under the direction of Dioscorus of Alexandria. Via Haas’ , I learn of a further passage which may refer to the parabalani.
Work over the last decade has shown that a major function of eyespots is their ability to reduce predation by being intimidating to attacking predators.
Furthermore, we did not find a significant effect of symmetry of patterns, again in discordance with previous work.
It is again in the Acts of the Council of Chalcedon, where a presbyter named Ischryion applies to have his complaint against Dioscorus heard.